Greek 'apoklima' and 'sunaphe' for declination and planetary conjunction, Hindi 'apoklima' and 'sunapha' respectively in Varaha Mihira's texts are considered conclusive evidence of a Greek origin for Hindu astrology. The early use of Chinese astrology was mainly confined to political astrology , the observation of unusual phenomena, identification of portents and the selection of auspicious days for events and decisions.
It is based on cycles of years, lunar months, and two-hour periods of the day the shichen.
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They do not rely on direct observations of the stars. The Korean zodiac is identical to the Chinese one. The Vietnamese zodiac is almost identical to Chinese zodiac except the second animal is the Water Buffalo instead of the Ox , and the fourth animal is the Cat instead of the Rabbit.
The Japanese have since celebrated the beginning of the new year on 1 January as per the Gregorian calendar. The Thai zodiac begins, not at Chinese New Year , but either on the first day of fifth month in the Thai lunar calendar , or during the Songkran festival now celebrated every 13—15 April , depending on the purpose of the use. Augustine — believed that the determinism of astrology conflicted with the Christian doctrines of man's free will and responsibility, and God not being the cause of evil,  but he also grounded his opposition philosophically, citing the failure of astrology to explain twins who behave differently although conceived at the same moment and born at approximately the same time.
Some of the practices of astrology were contested on theological grounds by medieval Muslim astronomers such as Al-Farabi Alpharabius , Ibn al-Haytham Alhazen and Avicenna. They said that the methods of astrologers conflicted with orthodox religious views of Islamic scholars , by suggesting that the Will of God can be known and predicted in advance. Avicenna considered that the movement of the planets influenced life on earth in a deterministic way, but argued against the possibility of determining the exact influence of the stars.
And if you astrologers answer that it is precisely because of this distance and smallness that their influences are negligible, then why is it that you claim a great influence for the smallest heavenly body, Mercury? Why is it that you have given an influence to al-Ra's and al-Dhanab , which are two imaginary points [ascending and descending nodes]? Maimonides , the preeminent Jewish philosopher, astronomer, and legal codifier, wrote that astrology is forbidden by Jewish law. The Catechism of the Catholic Church maintains that divination, including predictive astrology, is incompatible with modern Catholic beliefs  such as free will: .
All forms of divination are to be rejected: recourse to Satan or demons, conjuring up the dead or other practices falsely supposed to "unveil" the future. Consulting horoscopes, astrology, palm reading, interpretation of omens and lots, the phenomena of clairvoyance, and recourse to mediums all conceal a desire for power over time, history, and, in the last analysis, other human beings, as well as a wish to conciliate hidden powers. They contradict the honor, respect, and loving fear that we owe to God alone. The scientific community rejects astrology as having no explanatory power for describing the universe, and considers it a pseudoscience.
Confirmation bias is a form of cognitive bias , a psychological factor that contributes to belief in astrology. Another, separate, form of confirmation bias also plays a role, where believers often fail to distinguish between messages that demonstrate special ability and those that do not.
Under the criterion of falsifiability , first proposed by the philosopher of science Karl Popper , astrology is a pseudoscience. In contrast to Popper, the philosopher Thomas Kuhn argued that it was not lack of falsifiability that makes astrology unscientific, but rather that the process and concepts of astrology are non-empirical. Rather, in Kuhn's eyes, astrology is not science because it was always more akin to medieval medicine ; astrologers followed a sequence of rules and guidelines for a seemingly necessary field with known shortcomings, but they did no research because the fields are not amenable to research,  : 8 and so "they had no puzzles to solve and therefore no science to practise.
An astrologer could only explain away failure but could not revise the astrological hypothesis in a meaningful way. As such, to Kuhn, even if the stars could influence the path of humans through life astrology is not scientific. The philosopher Paul Thagard asserts that astrology cannot be regarded as falsified in this sense until it has been replaced with a successor. In the case of predicting behaviour, psychology is the alternative. For these reasons Thagard views astrology as pseudoscience. For the philosopher Edward W. James, astrology is irrational not because of the numerous problems with mechanisms and falsification due to experiments, but because an analysis of the astrological literature shows that it is infused with fallacious logic and poor reasoning.
What if throughout astrological writings we meet little appreciation of coherence, blatant insensitivity to evidence, no sense of a hierarchy of reasons, slight command over the contextual force of critieria, stubborn unwillingness to pursue an argument where it leads, stark naivete concerning the effiacacy of explanation and so on? In that case, I think, we are perfectly justified in rejecting astrology as irrational.
Astrology simply fails to meet the multifarious demands of legitimate reasoning. Astrology has not demonstrated its effectiveness in controlled studies and has no scientific validity. In , the astrologer and psychologist Michel Gauquelin stated that though he had failed to find evidence that supported indicators like zodiacal signs and planetary aspects in astrology, he did find positive correlations between the diurnal positions of some planets and success in professions that astrology traditionally associates with those planets.
Geoffrey Dean has suggested that the effect may be caused by self-reporting of birth dates by parents rather than any issue with the study by Gauquelin. The suggestion is that a small subset of the parents may have had changed birth times to be consistent with better astrological charts for a related profession. The number of births under astrologically undesirable conditions was also lower, indicating that parents choose dates and times to suit their beliefs. The sample group was taken from a time where belief in astrology was more common.
Gauquelin had failed to find the Mars effect in more recent populations, where a nurse or doctor recorded the birth information. Dean, a scientist and former astrologer, and psychologist Ivan Kelly conducted a large scale scientific test that involved more than one hundred cognitive , behavioural , physical , and other variables—but found no support for astrology.
Ten of the tests—which involved participants—had the astrologers pick the correct chart interpretation out of a number of others that were not the astrologically correct chart interpretation usually three to five others. When date and other obvious clues were removed, no significant results suggested there was any preferred chart.
Testing the validity of astrology can be difficult, because there is no consensus amongst astrologers as to what astrology is or what it can predict. Many astrologers claim that astrology is scientific,  while some have proposed conventional causal agents such as electromagnetism and gravity. Western astrology has taken the earth's axial precession also called precession of the equinoxes into account since Ptolemy's Almagest , so the "first point of Aries", the start of the astrological year, continually moves against the background of the stars.
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Astrologers usually have only a small knowledge of astronomy, and often do not take into account basic principles—such as the precession of the equinoxes, which changes the position of the sun with time. Charpak and Broch noted that, "There is a difference of about twenty-two thousand miles between Earth's location on any specific date in two successive years", and that thus they should not be under the same influence according to astrology. Over a year period there would be a difference greater than , miles. In the West, political leaders have sometimes consulted astrologers.
For example, the British intelligence agency MI5 employed Louis de Wohl as an astrologer after claims surfaced that Adolf Hitler used astrology to time his actions. The War Office was " However, Quigley's role ended in when it became public through the memoirs of former chief of staff, Donald Regan.
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There was a boom in interest in astrology in the late s. The sociologist Marcello Truzzi described three levels of involvement of "Astrology-believers" to account for its revived popularity in the face of scientific discrediting. He found that most astrology-believers did not claim it was a scientific explanation with predictive power.
Instead, those superficially involved, knowing "next to nothing" about astrology's 'mechanics', read newspaper astrology columns, and could benefit from "tension-management of anxieties" and "a cognitive belief-system that transcends science. They were much younger than those at the first level, and could benefit from knowledge of the language of astrology and the resulting ability to belong to a coherent and exclusive group.
Those at the third level were highly involved and usually cast horoscopes for themselves. Astrology provided this small minority of astrology-believers with a " meaningful view of their universe and [gave] them an understanding of their place in it. In , the sociologist Theodor W. Adorno conducted a study of the astrology column of a Los Angeles newspaper as part of a project examining mass culture in capitalist society.
The comparable percentage has not been this low since In India, there is a long-established and widespread belief in astrology. It is commonly used for daily life, particularly in matters concerning marriage and career, and makes extensive use of electional , horary and karmic astrology. On February , the Bombay High Court reaffirmed astrology's standing in India when it dismissed a case that challenged its status as a science. In Japan , strong belief in astrology has led to dramatic changes in the fertility rate and the number of abortions in the years of Fire Horse. Adherents believe that women born in hinoeuma years are unmarriageable and bring bad luck to their father or husband.
In the fifteenth century, references to astrology, such as with similes , became "a matter of course" in English literature. In the sixteenth century, John Lyly's play, The Woman in the Moon , is wholly motivated by astrology,  while Christopher Marlowe makes astrological references in his plays Doctor Faustus and Tamburlaine both c.
In seventeenth century Spain, Lope de Vega , with a detailed knowledge of astronomy, wrote plays that ridicule astrology. In his pastoral romance La Arcadia , it leads to absurdity; in his novela Guzman el Bravo , he concludes that the stars were made for man, not man for the stars. The most famous piece of music influenced by astrology is the orchestral suite The Planets.
Written by the British composer Gustav Holst — , and first performed in , the framework of The Planets is based upon the astrological symbolism of the planets. The composer Colin Matthews wrote an eighth movement entitled Pluto, the Renewer , first performed in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Not to be confused with astronomy , the scientific study of celestial objects. Pseudoscience claiming celestial objects influence human affairs. Main articles. Death and culture Parapsychology Scientific literacy. Main article: History of astrology. See also: Babylonian astrology.
Main article: Hellenistic astrology. Main article: Hindu astrology. Main article: Astrology in medieval Islam. See also: Christian views on astrology. Further information: Chinese zodiac. See also: Christian views on astrology , Jewish views on astrology , and Muslim views on astrology. Main article: Astrology and science. James  : Mars, the Bringer of War. Venus, the Bringer of Peace.
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Mercury, the Winged Messenger. Jupiter, the Bringer of Jollity. Uranus, the Magician. Oxford Dictionary of English. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 11 December Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Merriam-Webster Inc. The Blackwell Dictionary of Western Philosophy. Mesopotamian astrology: an introduction to Babylonian and Assyrian celestial divination.
Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press. Foreword, The cosmic perspective 4th ed. Biswas, D. Mallik, C. Bappu 1. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Asquith, ed. Dordrecht: Reidel. National Science Foundation. Archived from the original on 1 February Retrieved 2 August About three-fourths of Americans hold at least one pseudoscientific belief; i.
Bibcode : Natur. Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union.
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Bibcode : IAUS.. Pingree; Robert Andrew Gilbert. Retrieved 7 October Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 6 July Astronomical Society of the Pacific. May Personality and Individual Differences. To optimise the chances of finding even remote relationships between date of birth and individual differences in personality and intelligence we further applied two different strategies. The first one was based on the common chronological concept of time e. The second strategy was based on the pseudo-scientific concept of astrology e.
Sun Signs, The Elements, and astrological gender , as discussed in the book Astrology: Science or superstition? Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 6 December Differentiation between astrology and astronomy began late s and by 17c. Oxford English Dictionary Second ed. September In Old French and Middle English astronomie seems to be the earlier and general word, astrologie having been subseq. Not in Shakespeare. History of western astrology. Volume II, The medieval and modern worlds first ed.
Are you being governed by a Scorpio? The one zodiac sign that dominates leadership positions around the world November sign Scorpio has the largest number of heads of government, 22 September's Virgo sign, known for being reflective, has the least, 12 Leos, which include Barack Obama, have the second-most representatives By Dailymail. Share this article Share. Read more: Share or comment on this article: Zodiac sign Scorpio dominates leadership positions around the world e-mail 5.
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